I’ve been on a quest over the last year or so to understand fully how a program ends up going from your brain into code, from code into an executable and from an executable into an executing program on your processor. I like the point I’ve got to in this pursuit, so I’m going to brain dump here :)
Prerequisite Knowledge: Some knowledge of assembler will help. Some knowledge of processors will also help. I wouldn’t call either of these necessary, though, I’ll try my best to explain what needs explaining. What you will need, though, is a toolchain. If you’re on Ubuntu, hopefully this article will help. If you’re on another system, Google for “[your os] build essentials”, e.g. “arch linux build essentials”.